Additionally, another exception occurred while executing the custom error page for the first exception. This article focuses upon hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Chloroquine was originally used as an anti-malarial therapeutic. Plaquenil pulmonary Side effects of hydroxychloroquine weight gain Hypoglycemia and plaquenil Plaquenil vs hydroxychloroquine If the maximum daily dosage recommendations are followed, the likelihood of toxicity from chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is less than 1% the first five years of treatment. Corneal epithelial changes are usually reversible, but retinopathy caused by these agents are not. Lights, photophobia, are fairly common, but reversible. Corneal deposits may appear as early as three weeks following initiation of therapy. The incidence of corneal changes and visual side effects appears to be considerably lower with hydroxychloroquine than with chloroquine. C. Retina Macula She was started on methotrexate and chloroquine. At her last follow‐up, in January 1999, she was doing well. The main features of the other three cases are shown in Table 1. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis PUK is characterized by inflammation involving the limbal part of the cornea and adjacent sclera. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. Chloroquine cornea Chloroquine Toxicity, Cornea Verticillata SpringerLink, PLAQUENIL® Plaquenil ophthalmologist or optometristWhy is chloroquine used to treat malaria Corneal microdeposits are an important manifestation of chloroquine-induced keratopathy. Corneal stroma cell density and corneal nerve number and morphology changes are also useful for detecting. Chloroquine Keratopathy of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Detected by In.. Rheumatoid corneal melt Rheumatology Oxford Academic. Cornea Verticillata - an overview ScienceDirect Topics. In this study, we have explored the anti-inflammatory and autophagy modulating effect of chloroquine CQ in human corneal epithelial and human corneal fibroblasts cells exposed to desiccation stress, an in-vitro model for DED. Gene and protein expression profiling of inflammatory and autophagy related molecular factors were analyzed in HCE-T. Diagnosis Hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity Discussion. Chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil HCQ have been used for many years, initially for the treatment of malaria but now more commonly for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus 1. Most cases of chloroquine retinopathy have developed when a higher than currently recommended 3 mg/kg/day using lean body weight dose was used. 21 A daily dose exceeding 250 mg with a total cumulative dose between 100 and 300 g is customarily needed to produce toxicity. 22 One study showed a 19% incidence of chloroquine retinopathy in.